Whether you may file for divorce via a court of law in the Netherlands depends on your and your spouse’s place of residence and nationality. If you and your spouse both have the Dutch nationality, you may file for divorce in the Netherlands wherever in the world you reside.
If one of you or both of you do not have the Dutch nationality, you can still get divorced in the Netherlands if you or your spouse is resident in the Netherlands.
However, in both situations, this is subject to the condition that the divorce was not first filed in a different country. If this was the case, you cannot file for divorce in the Netherlands.
In all other cases, with very rare exceptions, it is not possible to get divorced in the Netherlands if you live abroad. For example, if you were married in the Netherlands, you have the Dutch nationality but your spouse does not, and you both live abroad. This also applies if you both agree to file for divorce in the Netherlands.
Finally: even if you are not permitted by law to file for divorce in the Netherlands, some issues regarding divorce, such as division and equalisation issues and/or determining maintenance may be settled in the Netherlands in some cases.